The nuclear fission chain reaction is the fundamental process by which nuclear reactors produce usable energy. Most commonly, Uranium U-235 is the fissionable material used in this chain reaction (as shown in Fig. 1), although the basic outline is applicable generally.
Which metal is used for control rod in nuclear reactor?
Notes: Cadmium is most commonly used as control rods in the nuclear reactors. Cadmium absorbs neutrons in the reactors, preventing them from creating additional fission events.
How nuclear chain reaction is controlled in nuclear reactor?
In the operation of a nuclear reactor, fuel assemblies are put into place and then the control rods are slowly lifted until a chain reaction can just be sustained. As the reaction proceeds, the number of uranium-235 nuclei decreases and fission by-products which absorb neutrons build up.
How much energy does 1g of uranium produce?
The fission of 1 g of uranium or plutonium per day liberates about 1 MW. This is the energy equivalent of 3 tons of coal or about 600 gallons of fuel oil per day, which when burned produces approximately 1/4 tonne of carbon dioxide.
What property of radioactive nuclear waste makes it so difficult?
What property of radioactive nuclear waste makes it so difficult to dispose of responsibly? It is extremely volatile.
What is the function of control rod?
A rod, plate, or tube containing a material such as hafnium, boron, etc., used to control the power of a nuclear reactor. By absorbing neutrons, a control rod prevents the neutrons from causing further fissions.
Can a nuclear reaction be stopped?
The only way to control or stop a nuclear chain reaction is to stop the neutrons from splitting more atoms. Control rods made of a neutron-absorbing element such as boron reduce the number of free neutrons and take them out of the reaction. … In that case, the chain reaction stops.
Is nuclear fusion difficult to control?
Fusion, on the other hand, is very difficult. Instead of shooting a neutron at an atom to start the process, you have to get two positively charged nuclei close enough together to get them to fuse. … This is why fusion is difficult and fission is relatively simple (but still actually difficult).
What is the cost of 1 kg uranium?
Indian authorities yesterday arrested a man discovered in possession of close to 1 kilogram of uranium worth approximately $7 million, the Times of India reported (see GSN, June 3).
Why is U 238 not used as a fuel?
Uranium-235 (natural abundance 0.71%) is very scarce and difficult to separate from uranium-238 (natural abundance 99.28%). The much more abundant uranium-238 does not undergo fission and therefore cannot be used as a fuel for nuclear reactors.