An equipotential surface is a three-dimensional version of equipotential lines. Equipotential lines are always perpendicular to electric field lines. The process by which a conductor can be fixed at zero volts by connecting it to the earth with a good conductor is called grounding.
What are electric field lines and equipotential lines?
Electric field lines begin on positive charges and radiate away from them toward negative charges, where they terminate. 3. Equipotential lines are lines connecting points of the same electric potential. All electric field lines cross all equipotential lines perpendicularly.
What are meant by equipotential surface?
An equipotential surface is the collection of points in space that are all at the same potential. Equipotential lines are the two-dimensional representation of equipotential surfaces. Equipotential surfaces are always perpendicular to electric field lines. Conductors in static equilibrium are equipotential surfaces.
What is the general relation between electric field and potential?
The relationship between potential and field (E) is a differential: electric field is the gradient of potential (V) in the x direction. This can be represented as: Ex=−dVdx E x = − dV dx . Thus, as the test charge is moved in the x direction, the rate of the its change in potential is the value of the electric field.
Why electric field is normal to equipotential surface?
Since the electric field lines are directed radially away from the charge, hence they are opposite to the equipotential lines. … Therefore, the electric field is perpendicular to the equipotential surface.
What is an equipotential surface give an example?
a surface all of whose points have the same potential. For example, the surface of a conductor in electrostatics is an equipotential surface. In a force field the lines of force are normal, or perpendicular, to an equipotential surface.
Why electric field inside a conductor is zero?
Electric field is zero inside a charged conductor. For a charged conductor, the charges will lie on the surface of the conductor.So, there will not be any charges inside the conductor. When there is no charge there will not be electric field.